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Perez C, Faust B, Mehdipour AR, Francesconi KA, Forrest LR, Ziegler C. Substrate-bound outward-open state of the betaine transporter BetP provides insights into Na+ coupling. Nat Commun. 15;5:4231. (2014)

Koshy C, Ziegler C. Structural insights into functional lipid-protein interactions in secondary transporters. Epub 2014 May 20. (2014)

Schweikhard ES, Kempson SA, Ziegler C, Burckhardt BC. Mutation of a single threonine in the cytoplasmic NH2 terminus disrupts trafficking of renal betaine-GABA transporter 1 during hypertonic stress. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 1;307(1):F107-15. (2014)

Sand, M., Stahl, J., Waclawska, I., Ziegler, C. and Averhoff, B.: Identification of an osmo-dependent and an osmo-independent choline transporter in Acinetobacter baylyi: implications in osmostress protection and metabolic adaptation. Environ Microbiol. 16(6):1490-502. (2014).

Dong J, Zhao H, Zhou T, Spiliotopoulos D, Rajendran C, Li XD, Huang D, Caflisch A. Structural Analysis of the Binding of Type I, I1/2, and II Inhibitors to Eph Tyrosine Kinases. ACS Med Chem Lett. 6(1):79-83. (2014)

Busch F, Rajendran C, Mayans O, Löffler P, Merkl R, Sterner R. TrpB2 enzymes are O-phospho-l-serine dependent tryptophan synthases. Biochemistry. 53(38):6078-83. (2014)

Xia L, Lin H, Staniek A, Panjikar S, Ruppert M, Hilgers P, Williardt J, Rajendran C, Wang M, Warzecha H, Jäger V, Stöckigt J. Ligand structures of synthetic deoxa-pyranosylamines with raucaffricine and strictosidine glucosidases provide structural insights into their binding and inhibitory behaviours. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. :1-7. (2014)

Peterhoff D, Beer B, Rajendran C, Kumpula EP, Kapetaniou E, Guldan H, Wierenga RK, Sterner R, Babinger P. A comprehensive analysis of the geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase enzyme family identifies novel members and reveals mechanisms of substrate specificity and quaternary structure organization. Mol Microbiol. 92(4):885-99. (2014)

Reisinger B, Sperl J, Holinski A, Schmid V, Rajendran C, Carstensen L, Schlee S, Blanquart S, Merkl R, Sterner R. Evidence for the existence of elaborate enzyme complexes in the Paleoarchean era. J Am Chem Soc. 136(1):122-9. (2014)


Koshy C, Schweikhard ES, Gärtner RM, Perez C, Yildiz O, Ziegler C. Structural evidence for functional lipid interactions in the betaine transporter BetP. EMBO J. 32(23):3096-105. (2013)

Meier, M. M., Rajendran, C., Malisi, C., Fox, N. G., Xu, C., Schlee, S., Barondeau, D. P., Höcker, B., Sterner, R. and Raushel, F. M.: Molecular engineering of organophosphate hydrolysis activity from a weak promiscuous lactonase template. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 7;135 (31) 11670-7 (2013).

Sperl, J. M., Rohweder, B., Rajendran, C. and Sterner, R.: Establishing catalytic activity on an artificial (βα)8-barrel protein designed from identical half-barrels. FEBS Lett. 2;587 (17) 2798-805 (2013).

Perez, C. and Ziegler, C.: Mechanistic aspects of sodium-binding sites in LeuT-like fold symporters. Biol. Chem. 394 (5) 641-8 (2013).

Korkmaz, F., Ressl, S., Ziegler, C. and Mäntele, W.: K(+)-induced conformational changes in the trimeric betaine transporter BetP monitored by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1828 (4) 1181-1191 (2013).

Fielding, A. J., Parey, K., Ermler, U., Scheller, S., Jaun, B. and Bennati, M.: Advanced electron paramagnetic resonance on the catalytic iron-sulfur cluster bound to the CCG domain of heterodisulfide reductase and succinate: quinone reductase. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., in press (2013).

Parey, K., Demmer, U., Warkentin, E., Wynen, A., Ermler, U, Dahl C. Structural, Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Dissimilatory ATP Sulfurylase from Allochromatium vinosum. PLoS One 8 (9) e74707 (2013).

Parey, K., Fritz, G., Ermler, U. and Kroneck, P. M. H.: Conserving energy with sulfate around 100 °C – structure and mechanism of key metal enzymes in hyperthermophilic Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Metallomics 5 302-317 (2013).



Schweikhard, E. S. and Ziegler, C.: Amino acid secondary transporters: toward a common transport mechanism. Curr Top Membr 70 1-28 (2012).

Khafizov, K., Perez, C., Koshy, C., Quick, M., Fendler, K., Ziegler, C. and Forrest, L.R.: Investigation of the sodium-binding sites in the sodium-coupled betaine transporter BetP. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109 (44) 3035-3044 (2012).

Perez, C., Koshy, C., Yildiz, O. and Ziegler, C.: Alternating-access mechanism in conformationally asymmetric trimers of the betaine transporter BetP. Nature. 490 (7418) 126-30 (2012).

Reisinger, B., Bocola, M., List, F., Claren, J., Rajendran, C. and Sterner, R.:
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Xia, L., Rajendran, C., Ruppert, M., Panjikar, S., Wang, M. and Stoeckigt, J.: High speed X-ray analysis of plant enzymes at room temperature. Phytochemistry. (2012).

Sun, L., Chen, Y., Rajendran, C., Mueller, U., Panjikar, S., Wang, M., Mindnich, R., Rosenthal, C., Penning, T.M. and Stöckigt, J.: Crystal structure of perakine reductase, founding member of a novel aldo-keto reductase (AKR) subfamily that undergoes unique conformational changes during NADPH binding. J. Biol. Chem. 287(14) 11213-21 (2012).

Wu, F., Zhu, H., Sun, L., Rajendran, C., Wang, M., Ren, X., Panjikar, S., Cherkasov, A., Zou, H. and Stöckigt, J. Scaffold tailoring by a newly detected Pictet-Spenglerase activity of strictosidine synthase: from the common tryptoline skeleton to the rare piperazino-indole framework. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (3) 1498-500 (2012).

Xia, L., Ruppert, M., Wang, M., Panjikar, S., Lin, H., Rajendran, C., Barleben, L. and Stöckigt, J.: Structures of alkaloid biosynthetic glucosidases decode substrate specificity. ACS Chem. Biol. 7 (1) 226-34 (2012).


Perez, C., Khafizov, K., Forrest, L. R., Krämer, R., and Ziegler, C.: The role of trimerization in the osmoregulated betaine transporter BetP. EMBO Rep. 12 (8) 804-810 (2011).

Perez, C., Koshy, C., Ressl, S., Nicklisch, S., Krämer, R. and Ziegler, C.: Substrate specificity and ion coupling in the Na+/betaine symporter BetP. EMBO J. 30 1221-1229 (2011).

Khafizov, K., Perez, C., Tsai, C.-J., Ziegler, C. and Forrest, L. R.: Computational and Experimental Studies of Substrate Binding, Conformational Change and Importance of the Trimeric State in the Glycine Betaine Transporter BetP. Biophys. J. 100 (3) Suppl. 1, p. 132a (Conference paper, 2011).

Gärtner, R. M., Perez, C., Koshy, C. and  Ziegler, C.: Role of Bundle Helices in a Regulatory Crosstalk in the Trimeric Betaine Transporter BetP. J. Mol. Biol. 414 (3) 327-336 (2011).

Ge, L., Perez, C., Waclawska, I., Ziegler, C. and Müller, D. J.: Locating an extracellular K+-dependent interaction site that modulates betaine-binding of the Na+-coupled betaine symporter BetP. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 108 (43) E890-E898 (2011).

Forrest, L. R., Krämer, R. and Ziegler, C.: The structural basis of secondary active transport mechanisms. Biochim. Biophys. Acta – Bioenergetics. 1807 (2) 167-188 (2011).

Rajendran, C., Dworkowski, F.S., Wang, M. and Schulze-Briese, C.: Radiation damage in room-temperature data acquisition with the PILATUS 6M pixel detector. J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18 (Pt 3) 318-28 (2011).

Rajendran, C., Gerhardt, E. C., Bjelic, S., Gasperina,  A., Scarduelli, M., Pedrosa, F. O., Chubatsu, L. S., Merrick, M., Souza, E. M., Winkler, F. K., Huergo, L. F. and Li X, D.: Crystal structure of the GlnZ-DraG complex reveals a different form of PII-target interaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 108 (47)18972-6 (2011).

Kaster, A. K., Moll, J., Parey, K. and Thauer, R. K.: Coupling of ferredoxin- and heterodisulfide reduction with H2 via electron bifurcation in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108  2981-2986 (2011).


Ziegler, C., Bremer, E. and Krämer, R.: The BCCT family of carriers: from physiology to crystal structure. Mol. Microbiol. 78 (1) 13-34 (2010).

Schweikhard, E. S., Kuhlmann, S. I., Kunte, H.-J., Grammann, K. and Ziegler, C. M.: Structure and Function of the Universal Stress Protein TeaD and its Role in Regulating the Ectoine Transporter TeaABC of Halomonas elongata DSM 2581T. Biochem. 49 2194-2204 (2010).

Rajendran, C., Ermler, U., Ludwig, B. and Michel, H.: Structure at 1.5 A resolution of cytochrome c(552) with its flexible linker segment, a membrane-anchored protein from Paracoccus denitrificans. Acta Crystallogr. D. Biol. Crystallogr. 66 (Pt 7) 850-4 (2010).

Parey, K., Warkentin, E., Kroneck, P. M. H. and Ermler, U.: Reaction cycle of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Biochemistry. 49  8912-8921 (2010).

Parey, K., Schiffer, A., Steuber, J., Ermler, U. and Kroneck, P. M. H.: Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase. Handbook of Metalloproteins, Volume 4, 103-110 (2010). Editor: Albrecht Messerschmidt, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.


Krämer, R. and Ziegler, C.: Regulative interactions of the osmosensing C-terminal domain in the trimeric glycine betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Biol. Chem. 390 (8) 685-691 (2009).

Appel, M., Hizlan, D., Vinothkumar, K. R., Ziegler, C. and Kühlbrandt, W.: Conformations of NhaA, the Na+/H+ exchanger from Escherichia coli, in the pH-activated and ion-translocating states. J. Mol. Biol. 388 (3) 659-672 (2009).

Ressl, S., Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A.C., Vonrhein, C., Ott, V. and Ziegler, C.: Molecular basis of transport and regulation in the Na(+)/betaine symporter BetP. Nature 458 (7234) 47-52 (2009).

Coulibaly, F., Chiu, E., Gutmann, S., Rajendran, C., Haebel, P. W., Ikeda, K., Mori, H., Ward, V. K., Schulze-Briese, C. and Metcalf,P.: The atomic structure of baculovirus polyhedra reveals the independent emergence of infectious crystals in DNA and RNA viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 106 (52) 22205-10 (2009).


Kuhlmann, S. I., Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A. C., Bienert, R., Kunte, H. J. and Ziegler, C.: 1.55 A structure of the ectoine binding protein TeaA of the osmoregulated TRAP-transporter TeaABC from Halomonas elongata. Biochemistry 47 (36) 9475-9485 (2008).

Kedrov, A., Appel, M., Baumann, H., Ziegler, C. and Müller, D. J.: Examining the Dynamic Energy landscape of an antiporter upon inhibitor binding. J. Mol. Biol. 375 1258-1266 (2008).

Schiffer, A., Parey, K., Warkentin, E., Diederichs, K., Huber, H., Stetter, K. O., Kroneck, P. M. H. and Ermler, U.: Structure of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus.  J. Mol. Biol. 379 1063-1074 (2008).


Tsai, C. J., Ejsing, C. S., Shevchenko, A. and Ziegler, C.: The role of lipids in two-dimensional crystallization of BetP, a glycine-betaine transporter from Corynebacterium glutamicum. J. Struc. Biol. 160 275-286 (2007).


Kedrov, A., Ziegler, C. and Müller, D. J.: Differentiating ligand and inhibitor interactions of a single antiporter. J. Mol. Biol. 362 (5) 925-932 (2006).

Kedrov, A., Janovjak, H., Ziegler, C., Kühlbrandt, W. and Müller, D.J.: Observing folding pathways and kinetics of a single sodium-proton antiporter from Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 355 (1) 2-8 (2006).


Tsai, C.-J. and Ziegler, C.: Structure determination of secondary transport proteins by electron crystallography: Two-dimensional crystallization of the betaine uptake system BetP. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 10 197-207 (2005).

Kedrov, A., Krieg, M., Ziegler, C., Kühlbrandt, W. and Müller, D. J.: Locating ligand binding and activation of a single antiporter. EMBO Rep. 6 (7) 668-674 (2005).

Srinivasan, V., Rajendran, C., Sousa, F. L., Melo, A. M., Saraiva, L. M., Pereira, M. M., Santana, M., Teixeira, M. and Michel, H.: Structure at 1.3 A resolution of Rhodothermus marinus caa(3) cytochrome c domain. J. Mol. Biol. 345 (5) 1047-57 (2005).


Kedrov, A., Ziegler, C., Janovjak, H., Kühlbrandt, W. and Müller, D. J.: Controlled unfolding and refolding of a single sodium-proton antiporter using atomic force microscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 340 (5)1143-1152 (2004).

Ziegler, C., Morbach, S., Schiller, D., Krämer, R., Tziatzios, C., Schubert, D. and Kühlbrandt, W.: (2004). Projection structure and oligomeric state of the osmoregulated sodium/glycine betaine symporter BetP of Corynebacterium glutamicum. J. Mol. Biol. 337(5) 1137-47 (2004).


Ziegler, C., Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Delacroix, S., Habrand, J. L. and Mazal A.: Effectiveness of protons and argon ions in initiating lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoproteins. Radiat. Res. 150 (4) 483-487 (1998).

Ziegler, C. and Wessels, J. M.: Investigation of lipid peroxidation in liposomes induced by heavy ion irradiation.  Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 37(2) 95-100 (1998).


Kinder, R., Ziegler, C. and Wessels, J. M.: Gamma-irradiation and UV-C light-induced lipid peroxidation: a Fourier transform-infrared absorption spectroscopic study.
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